ET Technology

Electrical Tomography (ET) is an imaging non-nuclear imaging technique used to determine the permittivity distribution of dielectric media within the region of interest. The technology enables real-time imaging and measurement of media inside process pipes and separator tanks. The technology works well in processes with multiphase flows, including for example oil, water, gas and solids.

Process imaging and monitoring is based on the permittivity/conductivity distribution of the media.

Measurement Principle - Electrical Tomography (ET)

Voltage is injected between electrodes of the tomographic sensor installed into a process pipe or tank. As a result, measured currents are sent to the electrical unit. This enables calculations that form the process image and trends.

Examples of Permittivities and Conductivities

PERMITTIVITIES                                                CONDUCTIVITIES                    

Medium Permittivity, εr
Air (dry) 1.0006
Water / humidity 80.4
Olive oil 3.1
Gasoline 2.0
Kerosene 1.8
Sand (dry) 3.0-5.0
Calcium Carbonate 6.1-9.1
Polyethylene 2.3
PTFE  2.1
PVC   3.4-4.0
Sulphuric acid 84.0
Glass 3.7-10.0
Wood (dry) 2.0-6.0
Medium Conductivity, σ (S/m)
Drinking water 5.00×10−4 to 5.00×10−2
Sea water 4.80
Air 3×10−15 to 8×10−15
Aluminum 3.50×107
Copper 5.96×107
Zinc 1.69×107
Nickel 1.43×107
Gold 4.10×107
Silver 6.30×107
Carbon steel 6.99×106
Stainless steel 1.45×106


See our products to find out how we apply ET technology to industrial processes.

Read more about process tomography or check frequently asked questions. You can also contact us for more information.

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Multiphase Pipe Flow Visualization with ET Technology

Multiphase Flow Visualization Click here to see more videos of flow visualization in a multiphase loop with various oil/water/gas contents.

Application Examples

  • Deposition buildup in pipes
  • Sanding in pipes
  • Emulsion layer and multiple interfaces in separator tanks

Have another application in mind?
Contact us with your request and we can develop a custom solution for you.

Also Check

Products Technology System Development Frequently Asked Questions